Shrikant G Talageri was born in 1958, educated in Mumbai, India where he lives and works. Talageri has revolutionized the research into Rig Veda. He has successfully identified several historical information from Rig Veda, which he used to chronologically arrange the ten Mandalas of Rig Veda (6, 3, 7,, 4, 2, 5 and 8,9,10) . He explored the history of the kings and the sages who composed the Rigvedic hymns. Talageri utilized for his analysis, the Anukramanis in Rigveda, which are often neglected by scholars. He also studied the geographical basis of Rig Veda. As a corollary of his analysis, he establishes that Rig Veda was composed by sages living in Saraswati river valley between Saraswati and Ganga rivers (Hariyana) who were patrons of the kings who ruled in this area. These patron kings were especially the Puru and particularly the Bharata branch of the Purus. He also analyzed the probable location of origin (Punjab) of the Iranians and the Europeans. Talageri equates the Vedic-Aryans to the Purus and the Iranians to the Anus a sibling branch of the Purus. Other sibling branches includes the Drahyus, the Yadus and the Turvasus.
In his latest book Rigveda And Avesta The Final Evidence Talageri expands his arguments and details how the Anus and Drahyus migrated to north and west giving rise to the Iranian and the European branches of the Indo European language family. Talagari's analysis is not dependant on the genome based studies of human migrations nor on the archeo-astronomical studies. Yet his analysis and the migration pattern of Indo European language family matches with the patterns described by both these independent studies. Thus his theory generally categorized under Out Of India (OIT) theory of origin of IE Family is firm and a strong contender to the well established IE homeland theories.
Shrikant Talageri has authored four books to date. Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism, Aryan Invasion Theory: A Reappraisal, Rigveda: A Historical Analysis and Rigveda and Avesta the Final Evidence. Of this the second book Aryan Invasion Theory a Reappraisal is a revised edition of the first book Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism.
Aryan Invasion Theory a Reappraisal
This book analyses the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) and compares it with the data present in the Sanskrit Texts, especially the Puranas. From the analysis it becomes clear that the pattern of migration of Aryans from outside India to north west of India is not compatible with the data present in Sanskrit texts. The Puranas or any Sanskrit text, does not support any such migration scenario and no memory of a homeland outside India is reflected in these texts. On the contrary it describes several migrations from India to north western India in the form of migration of tribes like the Drahyus and the Anus.
Rigveda: A Historical Analysis
This book analyses Rigveda, which is the oldest Sanskrit text and uses the data present in it (geography, river names, mountain names, place names, plant names, animal names, names of composers, kings and sages) to show that it supports no migration of any so called Aryans from outside India into India. The data coherently shows migration of people and Vedic culture from India to the west and north in a predominantly east to west direction. He also identifies the Vedic Aryans with the Purus mentioned in the Vedas and Puranas, where as the sibling branches of the Purus viz. the Anus are identified generally with the Iranians and the Drahyus with the Europeans who diversified into various European dialects including English and German.
He also effectively uses the Anukramani section of Rigveda and discovers the correct chronology of the 10 Mandalas (volumes) of Rigved as 6, 3, 7 (early books),, 4, 2, 5 (middle books) and 8,9,10 (late books). The book concludes with a relative chronology of Rigeveda and establishes the general pattern of IE migration from Indian homeland giving rise to Iranian and European language families.
Rigveda and Avesta: The final Evidence
This latest book from Talageri makes a comparative analysis of Rigveda and Avesta (Iranian holy texts) and the Mitanni evidence to extract the final evidence for the migration of Indo European people from an Indian homeland. Using the new evidence emerging out of the comparative analysis of the above mention two oldest attested Indo European texts he firmly establishes that that Proto Indo European language was native to India where it existed in the Ganga basin along with other language groups. He makes it clear that Vedic Aryans were originally inhabitants of Ganga-Yamuna basin and they migrated to Sarasvati subsequently and finally to Sindhu (Indus) and its western tributaries spreading as far as Afganistan. The Proto-Iranians branched off from Vedic Aryans in Punjab and Kashmir from where they spread to their historically attested location in Iran. Proto-Europeans branched off from Vedic Aryans and Iranians from the same area before the early Vedic period. Their memory stayed as the memory of a tribe named the Drahyus (Druids in Celtic) attested both in Avesta and Vedas.
Using the archaeologically attested Mitannis in West Asia and showing that their IE language and personal names indicate that it is post Vedic, he concludes that the date for early RigVedic period cannot be late than 4000 BCE and the date for late RigVedic period cannot be late than 2500 BCE. Thus he establishes an absolute chronology for Rigveda.
YouTube Video of Shrikant Talageri's talk
As an introduction to this book, a YouTube video of Shrikant Talageri's talk is hosted below. This video discusses the topics covered in Shrikant Talageri's books.
Talageri's last two books (Rigveda: A Historical Analysis and Rigveda and Avesta:The final evidence) are available for free reading. Click on the buttons in the widget below to read the free online version or to buy them from online stores.
Finally, some good news to report on the Ebola front: Nigeria and Senegal are now completely free of the disease. Here's how they contained the outbreak — and why the world needs to take notice.
Top image: A Nigerian health official uses a thermometer on a worker to check for fever at the arrivals hall of Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos (Associated Press).
Earlier today, the World Health Organization announced that no new case of Ebola has emerged in Nigeria in 42 days. That's the standard length of time required for declaring the end to an outbreak, since it's twice the maximum 21-day incubation period for the virus. It's an incredible achievement — one that should assuage fears and show that Ebola can be contained. Moreover, it's proof that developing nations, with sufficient support from the international community, are fully capable of dealing with the epidemic.
Thwarting an "Apocalyptic Urban Outbreak"
Things looked bleak back in July when the virus was detected in Lagos, Africa's largest city. Nigeria, with its 166 million inhabitants, is Africa's most populous country and its newest economic powerhouse. Lagos boasts a population of 21 million, making it nearly as large as the populations of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone combined. With its airport and large population living in often crowded and unsanitary conditions, news of Ebola was met with a palpable sense of dread.
"The last thing anyone in the world wants to hear is the two words, 'Ebola' and 'Lagos' in the same sentence," noted Jeffrey Hawkins, the U.S. Consul General in Nigeria, at the time. The juxtaposition of the two conjured images of an "apocalyptic urban outbreak."
In the end, Nigeria confirmed a total of 19 Ebola cases, of whom seven died and 12 survived. It's a far cry from the situation in other parts of West Africa — but that's not an accident. Here's how Nigeria did it and the "best practices" that should now be employed elsewhere:
Effective Leadership and Public-Health Institutions
The WHO credits Nigeria for its strong leadership and effective coordination of the response:
The most critical factor is leadership and engagement from the head of state and the Minister of Health. Generous allocation of government funds and their quick disbursement helped as well. Partnership with the private sector was yet another asset that brought in substantial resources to help scale up control measures that would eventually stop the Ebola virus dead in its tracks.
The response was greatly aided by the rapid utilization of a national public institution (NCDC) and the prompt establishment of an Emergency Operations Centre, which was supported by the Disease Prevention and Control Cluster within the WHO country office. Nigeria also features a first-rate virology lab affiliated with the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. It was staffed and equipped to quickly and reliably diagnose Ebola, ensuring that containment measures could be employed with the shortest possible delay.
Rapid Response to the Initial Case
Nigeria's first Ebola patient, Patrick Sawyer, was initially thought to have malaria. But once that was ruled out, doctors immediately began treating him as a possible Ebola patient. He was kept in isolation, officials were notified, and a blood sample was rushed to a testing lab. Just three days later, Nigeria's health ministry set up an Ebola Incident Management Center, which eventually turned into an Emergency Operations Center that co-ordinated the response and decision-making.
Sufficient Access to Resources
As noted, federal and state governments in Nigeria were able to provide ample financial and material resources, including well-trained and experienced national staff. Isolation wards were immediately constructed, as were designated Ebola treatment facilities (though more slowly). Other resources included vehicles and mobile phones equipped with specially adapted apps allowing healthcare workers to engage in real-time reporting as the investigations moved forward. Many of these efforts were supported by social mobilization experts from UNICEF, CDC and Médecins sans Frontières.
High Quality Contact-Tracing
Nigerian health officials, working with assistance from WHO, the US CDC and others, managed to reach 100% of known contacts in Lagos and 99.8% at the second outbreak site in Port Harcourt, Nigeria's oil hub. High-quality contact tracing was performed by experienced epidemiologists who expedited the early detection of cases and their rapid movement to isolation wards. And unlike the tragic situation in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, all identified contacts were physically monitored on a daily basis for 21 days. Some contacts tried to escape during the monitoring process, but they were all tracked by special investigation teams and returned to observation to complete the requisite monitoring period of 21 days.
Applying Lessons From Previous Outbreaks
Nigeria has been combating another blight, polio, for quite some time now and with great success. Among their many tactics, health officials use the very latest satellite-based GPS technologies to ensure that no child missed out on polio vaccinations. When Ebola first appeared in July, they immediately repurposed these technologies and infrastructure to conduct Ebola case-finding, contact-tracing, and daily mapping of links between identified chains of transmission. Nigerian health officials also adapted the learnings from their efforts to eradicate guinea-worm disease.
A Rigorous Public Education Campaign
Communication with the public was also key. Nigerian health and government officials rallied communities to support containment measures. This involved house-to-house information campaigns — spoken in local dialects — that explained the level of risk, effective personal measures, and the actions being taken for control. All the while, Nigeria's president, Goodluck Jonathan, reassured his population on nationally televised newscasts. Traditional and religious community leaders were engaged early on and asked to play a role in sensitizing the public.Finally, the full range of media opportunities were exploited, including social media and televised facts about the disease delivered by Nigerian celebrities.
Screening At Borders — And A Refusal To Stop Air Travel
Instead of panicking and banning air travel, Nigerian health officials screened all arriving and departing travellers by air and by sea in Lagos and Rivers State. The average number of travellers screened each day reached a peak of more than 16,000.
Moving Forward With Vigilance
Clearly, this story isn't over yet. Vigilance remains high and Nigeria's surveillance systems remains on a high level of alert. It's quite possible that, given the country's success, people from neighbouring countries may try to (illicitly) enter in.
As a final note, and as noted by WHO Director-General Margaret Chan: "If a country like Nigeria, hampered by serious security problems, can do this – that is, make significant progress towards interrupting polio transmission, eradicate guinea-worm disease and contain Ebola, all at the same time – any country in the world experiencing an imported case can hold onward transmission to just a handful of cases."
Franco Luison, recollects in this interview to an Italian magazine 'GENTE' of his four years of love story before she had met with Rajive.
My love affair with Antonia Maino
"We were in love and happy everywhere" Our family were very happy and eager to know that we were in love. Her parents uses to accommodate me with great pleasure at their home of Orbassano near Turin where they were transferred in the 60's. She loved me and wanted to marry me, not the son of Indira. We met for the first time at the see shore of Jesolo in the 60's, when she was 14.
I was 26 when I met her for the first time under the shade of my beach umbrella, then I was famous, not Sonia! It seemed like a summer flirt for the first time but lasted for four years and our respective families were happy to see us together. Every sunday, after match, I used to go to Orbasano to meet her. Her family always received me with great pleasure and courtesy. Will remain with her until tuesday, before return for the practice.
Football was not her passion, though rarely turns up in stadium to see me in action. When finish the championship, during the summer, we used to go to Vicenza for weekends! I was the first great lover of Antonia. Our love story lasted for 4 years. She wanted me to promise her to marry, but I use to postponed each time. Then she went to England where she met Rajiv Gandhi. In 1964 she made a decision to go to England. Though I wasn't happy, she made her trip. She narrated me in her letters everything she was doing. Once she came back for vacation and spoke of Rajive, son of Indira Gandhi, and "I'm invited to meet his mother and will be going to Delhi soon", she added. When she came back from New Delhi, she was convinced that will marriage Rajive Gandhi. Though it hurt me very much, farewell to our four years relation wasn't very tragic and our goodbye was in a very gentle manner. He still keeps friendship with her family, and meets them at-least twice an year to exchange gifts during feasts. Nora, wife of Franco remember: "I was jealous of Sonia, for all his friends use to speak about her when I started our relation in the late 1964. "I was afraid one day Sonia would come back and I will loose Franco!" she added.